Four types of Social Innovation and their impact on democracy in the 21st century

Cuatro tipos de Innovación Social y su impacto en la democracia del siglo XXI



Palabras clave:

social innovation, 21st century, inclusion, participation


In modern history, there are various types of social innovation that have changed the world in different ways. In part, they go hand in hand with democratisation processes, but especially in the 21st century they harbour potential that threatens democracy. In this article, four types of social innovation are derived from the history of discourse and analysed in terms of their connection with democracy. The article argues that, especially in complex times, the acceptance of the new depends on how democratically it comes about and that, while strengthening democratic innovations is central to Europe's future, they are challenged by authoritarian notions of innovation. As a decisive parameter for a successful improvement or preservation of democratic systems, the article highlights the importance of the broadest possible inclusion, representation and participation in all four types.


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Cómo citar

Pausch, M. (2023). Four types of Social Innovation and their impact on democracy in the 21st century: Cuatro tipos de Innovación Social y su impacto en la democracia del siglo XXI. European Public & Social Innovation Review, 8(2), 28–39.



Research articles